Understanding Returns
Cash on Cash
Understanding Returns
Understanding “Cash on Cash” in Multifamily Investments
The term “cash on cash” refers to the return on your initial investment in a multifamily property, measured against the annual cash flow it generates.
Conceptual Overview:
 When purchasing a multifamily property, you typically make a substantial upfront investment.
 The cashoncash return evaluates the efficacy of this investment by comparing the income it produces relative to the initial amount spent.
Calculating Cash on Cash Return
$\mathrm{=\; (Annual\; Net\; Cash\; Flow\; /\; Initial\; Investment)\; x\; 100}$
Example Calculation:
Suppose:
 Initial Investment in a multifamily property: $100,000
 Annual Net Cash Flow: $10,000
Using the formula: Cash on Cash Return = frac{$10,000}{$100,000} times 100 = 10%
This implies a 10% return on the initial amount invested in the property.
Key Insights:
 Profitability Indicator: A superior cashoncash return signifies a more lucrative investment. Essentially, you receive a higher return in proportion to the capital you committed.
 Comparative Analysis: Investors frequently employ this metric to juxtapose different investment avenues and gauge the fiscal performance of their multifamily assets.
 Limitations: It’s paramount to understand that the cashoncash metric solely considers cash inflow from the venture, neglecting aspects like property value appreciation and tax advantages. As a standalone metric, it offers only a fragment of the entire investment picture. A comprehensive decisionmaking process should incorporate diverse metrics and elements.
Average Annual Cash on Cash
Understanding Returns
Understanding “Average Annual CashonCash” Return
The average annual cashoncash return is a method to measure the consistent return on an investment across a specific period. This metric, expressed as a percentage, gauges the cash flow produced by an investment in relation to the initial sum invested.
Conceptual Breakdown:

Purpose: It helps to determine the standard rate of return on an investment over a set period, providing a consistent measure of its performance.

Utility: Particularly valuable for investments like rental properties, where cash flow is consistent and predictable.
Formula for Average Annual CashonCash Return:
$= (Total Annual Net Cash Flow / Initial Investment) x 100 / Number of Years $
Illustrative Example:
Scenario: An investor buys a multifamily property for $500,000. The net cash flow for the first three years is as follows:
 Year 1: $30,000
 Year 2: $35,000
 Year 3: $40,000
Total Cash Flow over 3 years = $30,000 + $35,000 + $40,000 = $105,000
Using the formula: Average Annual CashonCash Return = frac{$105,000}{$500,000} times frac{100}{3} = 7%
Result: The investor witnesses an average annual return of 7% on the initial investment across three years.
Key Takeaways:

Benchmarking: The metric permits investors to juxtapose the returns of diverse investment avenues over an identical duration, facilitating informed capital allocation decisions.

Limitations: It’s crucial to recognize that this metric solely captures the cash inflow from the venture, sidelining other significant components of the investment return.
Average Annualized Return
Understanding Returns
Grasping “Annualized Average Investment Return”
The annualized average investment return provides an overview of your investment’s performance over time. It takes into account both yearly cash inflows (e.g., rental income) and the gain or loss realized upon selling the investment.
Explained with an Example:
Scenario: An investment of $50,000 is made in a multifamily property. Over 5 years, it generates the following rental income:
 Year 1: $5,000
 Year 2: $6,000
 Year 3: $6,500
 Year 4: $7,000
 Year 5: $7,500
At the 5year mark, the property is sold, resulting in a gain of $30,000.
Steps to Calculate Annualized Average Investment Return:
 Determine Total Cash Flows: Add up all annual rental incomes. Total Cash Flows = $5,000 + $6,000 + $6,500 + $7,000 + $7,500 = $32,000
 Include Gain from Sale: Add the gain from the property’s sale to the total cash flows. Total Cash Flows with Gain = $32,000 + $30,000 = $62,000
 Calculate Average Annual Return: Divide the combined total (cash flow + gain) by the initial investment and then by the duration of the investment.
$\text{AnnualizedAverageReturn}=\frac{\text{TotalCashFlowswithGain}}{\text{InitialInvestment}\times \text{HoldingPeriod(Years)}}$
Using the given figures:
(Note: The example ends here and doesn’t provide a completed calculation. To get the actual rate, complete the calculation using the provided formula.)
Key Insights:
 This metric provides a comprehensive view of an investment’s performance over a specified period.
 It’s especially beneficial for real estate investors as it combines both rental cash flow and sale gain into one rate of return, offering a holistic assessment of the investment’s profitability.
Equity Multiple
Understanding Returns
Understanding “Equity Multiple” in Investments
The equity multiple is a key financial metric in the world of investments. It tells investors how much total return they’ve received relative to their initial equity stake in the investment.
Breaking it Down:
 Purpose: The equity multiple helps gauge the overall profitability of an investment. It reveals how many times an investor’s equity has been returned through distributions.
 Formula: The calculation is straightforward: $\text{EquityMultiple}=\frac{\text{TotalCashDistributions}}{\text{InitialEquityInvestment}}$
 Example: Imagine an investor who contributes $200,000 into a multifamily property. Over time, they receive cash distributions totaling $350,000. Using our formula: Equity Multiple = $350,000 / $200,000 = 1.75x
This result signifies that for every dollar the investor put in, they got back $1.75.
 Desirability: An equity multiple greater than 1 is always a good sign – it means the investor got back more than they invested. The higher the equity multiple, the better the return on equity.
Points to Ponder:
 Holistic Analysis: While the equity multiple is a valuable tool, it’s just one of many metrics investors should consider. Factors like the risk associated with the investment, the duration of the investment, and prevailing market conditions can also heavily influence decisions.
 Risk and Return: A high equity multiple might indicate a high return, but it’s also essential to evaluate the associated risks. Higher returns often come with higher risks.
Internal Rate of Return
Understanding Returns
IRR (Internal Rate of Return) is a financial metric used to measure how well an investment performs over time. It represents the
average annual rate at which the investment grows or generates returns. In simpler words, it tells you how much your money groeach year on average if you invest it in a specific project or venture.
The IRR is a percentage, and the higher the IRR, the better the investment is performing. If the IRR is higher than other potentiainvestments or exceeds a certain target rate, it’s usually considered a good investment opportunity.
Here’s a simple example to illustrate IRR:
Let’s say you invest $10,000 in a multifamily property, and over the course of five years, you receive the following cash flows:
• Year 1: $2,000
• Year 2: $2,500
• Year 3: $3,000
• Year 4: $3,500
• Year 5: $4,000
To calculate the IRR, you want to find the percentage that, when applied to each cash flow, results in a total return that equals yoinitial investment of $10,000.
In this example, you could use financial tools like a calculator or software to find that the IRR for this investment is approximately14.46%.
This means that if the IRR stays consistent over the next five years (which may not always happen), you would be earning an avannual return of around 14.46% on your initial investment of $10,000.
IRR is a useful tool for investors to evaluate the potential of different investment opportunities, especially when comparing projecwith varying cash flows and timeframes. However, it’s important to consider other factors, such as the risks associated with the
investment, before making a final decision. Higher IRR doesn’t necessarily mean it’s always the best investment; it’s just one of factors to consider in your investment analysis.
Distributions
Understanding Returns
“Distributions” refer to the periodic payments made by the syndication sponsor (the entity or individual leading
the investment) to the passive investors in the syndication.
The distributions are typically made from the cash flow generated by the multifamily property, including rental
income minus operating expenses, mortgage payments, and other propertyrelated costs. The sponsor’s goal is
to regularly distribute a portion of the property’s positive cash flow to the limited partners, often quarterly.
Distributions are a way for passive investors to receive a return on their investment and share in the profits of the
multifamily property. The percentage of cash flow distributed to the limited partners is determined by the terms
outlined in the syndication’s operating agreement. This agreement sets forth the distribution frequency, the
preferred return rate (if applicable), and the profitsharing structure between the sponsor and the limited
partners.
The operating agreement may include a preferred return, which is a minimum rate of return that limited partners
receive before the sponsor takes a share of the profits. For example, if the preferred return is 8% and the
property generates enough cash flow to meet or exceed this rate, the limited partners will receive their 8% return
before any additional profits are shared with the sponsor.
Distributions are a critical aspect of multifamily syndication, as they provide passive investors with a regular
income stream and an opportunity to earn a return on their investment without actively managing the property.
Investors need to review the distribution structure and terms outlined in the syndication’s offering documents to
understand how they will receive income from their investment and what to expect regarding cash flow
distributions over the investment’s lifespan.
Return of Capital vs Return on Capital
Understanding Returns
Understanding Tax Implications in Multifamily Investing: Return on Capital vs. Return of Capital Distributions
1. Return on Capital Distributions:

Definition: This refers to the portion of the cash flow distributions or profits that an investor receives, representing a return on their initial investment capital.

Tax Implication: These distributions are usually taxable as ordinary income during the year of receipt. This is attributed to them being perceived as earnings or gains from the original investment made in the multifamily property.
Example: An investment of $100,000 in a multifamily property yields $10,000 in cash flow distributions. This $10,000 is viewed as a return on capital distribution and gets taxed as ordinary income in its receipt year.
2. Return of Capital Distributions:

Definition: These relate to the part of cash flow distributions or profits that an investor garners, which mirrors a return of their original investment. Essentially, it’s like getting a part or full refund of the original investment.

Tax Implication: They aren’t immediately taxable since they aren’t deemed as income. Rather, they decrease the “tax basis” of an investment – which is the initial amount minus any return of capital distributions over time.
Example: Using the same initial investment of $100,000, if an investor gets $20,000 as a return of capital distribution, there’s no immediate tax on this amount. It’s seen as a return of the original investment capital.
For optimal tax reporting and adjustments on taxable income and basis, it’s pivotal for investors to meticulously track their cash flow distributions – both return on capital and return of capital distributions. Engaging with a tax expert is vital to grasp the nuanced tax consequences linked to specific multifamily investments.